Skip to content

CSV

Table of Contents

Summary

This tutorial introduces you to the Drupal 8 Migrate tools available to create Islandora content. Whether you will eventually use CSVs or other sources (such as XML or directly from a 7.x Islandora) this tutorial should be useful as it covers the basics and mechanics of migration.

This tutorial uses the configurations and code available in the migrate_islandora_csv module which, when enabled, will create three example migrations ready for you to use with the Migrate API. Each migration comes from one of the files in the config/install folder. We'll walk through them in detail below. The module is also uses Features which allows you to make changes to the configuration files and sync those changes into your Drupal site.

A note on using Features

This tutorial (and Islandora in general) makes heavy use of Features, which is an easy way to ship and install Drupal configuration. However, after enabling a Feature module, the code in that module's directory is no longer "live", as the configuration now resides in the Drupal database. If you change code in the YAML files, it will not take effect until you re-import the Feature. There is a walkthrough in the "Configuration" section of the Migrate 7.x to 8 tutorial.

Sample CSV and images are also included in the module as a convenience so they are easily available on the Drupal server running the migration. (This is not the recommended method for making files available to Drupal in a real migration.)

The module also contains a Migrate process plugin that transforms strings into associative arrays. This is useful for populating multiple Linked Agent fields. (See "Typed Relation" for more information on the Linked Agent field.) It will be available when this module is enabled, and the node migration uses it. It was written generically and will hopefully become part of Migrate Plus, but for now it is here.

When you are ready to create your actual migrations, the contents of this repository can function as a template for you to create the YAML files defining your own migrations.

Introduction

Why CSV? CSV files (whether separated by commas, tabs, or other delimiters) are easy to understand and work with, and there's good tooling available for using them with Drupal 8's Migrate API. The Drupal contrib module migrate_source_csv provides a source plugin that reads from a CSV file, and migrate_plus provides more tools and flexibility for creating migrations, including the ability to create customized migrations using YAML and package them up as Features.

In this tutorial, we'll be inspecting each migration file in detail before running it. You'll start out by migrating the images themselves first, and then you'll create various Drupal entities to describe the files from the metadata in the CSV. It's not as scary as it sounds (especially since this module contains the data we'll be using in a data directory), but you will need a few things before beginning:

  1. An instance of Islandora 8. Use Islandora 8 playbook to spin up an environment pre-loaded with all the modules you need (except this one)
  2. Some basic command line skills. You won't need to know much, but you'll have to vagrant ssh into the box, navigate into Drupal, and use git and drush, etc... If you can copy/paste into a terminal, you'll survive.

A big part of this tutorial relies on the islandora_defaults and controlled_access_terms_defaults features, which define the default metadata profile for Islandora (which we'll be migrating into). You're not required to use the islandora_defaults or controlled_access_terms_defaults for your repository, but for the purposes of demonstration, it saves you a lot of user interface administrivia so you can focus just on the learning how to migrate. By the time you are done with this exercise, you'll be able to easily apply your knowledge to migrate using any custom metadata profile you can build using Drupal.

Overview

The Migrate API is the main way to ingest batches of data into Drupal (and because Islandora 8 is Drupal, into Islandora). The Migrate module only provides the framework, it's up to you to create the rules that take data from a source, through a process (i.e. a mapping) to a destination. A set of these rules is called a "migration". It has to be set up (as a Configuration Entity, either by importing a YAML file or by installing a Feature) and then it has to be run.

Once a migration has been run, it will have created (or updated) a bunch of Drupal entities of one type - whether that's taxonomy terms, nodes, files, etc. Since an Object in Islandora 8 is made up of several different Drupal entities that refer to each other, it's going to take multiple migrations to create an Islandora object, and it's important to perform these migrations in a sensible order.

A basic Islandora object is at minimum: - a file, which holds the actual binary contents of an item - a node, which holds the descriptive metadata for an item and makes it discoverable - a media, which holds technical metadata and references the file and the node, linking the two together.

Therefore, each row in your CSV must contain enough information to create these.

Using multiple sources for object components

While this tutorial uses a single CSV to describe all the parts of an islandora object, a site can use multiple sources (CSV or otherwise) to migrate the various parts. The only requirements then is to have keys in place matching the parts together. For example, a 'files.csv' can use paths that serve as file identifiers and 'metadata.csv' can use an object identifier. As long as the source for the media migration has the key values for the file and metadata migrations (the file paths and object identifiers, respectively, in this example), we can create the necessary links between the object's components. This is very useful when you need to migrate multiple media/file pairs associated with a single node, such as pre-processed derivatives that need to be migrated.

Buried in your descriptive metadata are often references to other things which aren't repository items themselves, but records still need to be kept for them. Authors, publishers, universities, places, etc... can be modeled as Drupal Entities, so that they can be referenced by other Entities. So there's the potential to have a lot of different entity types described in a single row in a CSV.

In this tutorial, we're working with islandora_defaults and controlled_access_terms entities, and will be migrating six entity types using the three migrations included in this module. - file - node - media - subject - person - corporate_body

We can do this because subjects, persons, and corporate bodies are (in this example) represented by simple 'name' strings. We create them on the fly, as if we were adding new tags to a tag vocabulary. If we wanted to model subjects, people, or corporate bodies as entities with multiple fields (first name, last name, date, subheadings, URI, etc.) then we would need up to six migrations.

Migrations follow the Extract-Transform-Load pattern. You extract the information from a source, process the data to transform it into the format you need, and load it into the destination system (i.e. Drupal). Migrations are stored in Drupal as configuration, which means they can be represented in YAML, transferred to and from different sites, and are compatible with Drupal's configuration synchronization tools. And the structure of each YAML file is arranged to follow the Extract-Transform-Load pattern.

To perform the migrations, we'll be using drush. We will be able to run each of the file, node, and media migrations separately or all at once in a group. We will also learn how to roll back a migration in case it didn't go as planned.

The sample migrations here will give us a chance to show off some techniques for working with multi-valued fields, entity reference fields, and complex field types like controlled_access_terms's typed_relation field. We'll also see how the migrate framework can help de-duplicate, and at the same time, linked data-ize :tm: your data by looking up previously migrated entities.

So hold on to your hats. First, let's get this module onto your Islandora instance.

Installation

From your islandora-playbook directory, issue the following commands to enable this module: - vagrant ssh to open a shell in your Islandora instance. - cd /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib to get to your modules directory. - git clone https://github.com/Islandora/migrate_islandora_csv to clone down the repository from GitHub. - drush en -y migrate_islandora_csv to enable the module, installing the migrations as configuration.

Optionally, flush the cache (drush cr), so the migrations become visible in the GUI at Manage > Structure > Migrations > migrate_islandora_csv (http://localhost:8000/admin/structure/migrate/manage/migrate_islandora_csv/migrations)

Now lets go migrate some files.

Caution

As you saw, you can git clone into the modules directory, but if you're installing a custom module that's intended to stay installed for the long term (unlike a migration feature, which you should probably uninstall and delete when you're done with it) then you may want to check with your devops folks and use Composer instead. However, using Git directly allows you to be more flexible when iterating and testing.

Ingesting Files

To migrate files (i.e. just the raw binaries) from a CSV, you need: - a column in the CSV containing paths to the files you wish to ingest, and - the files need to be accessible from the server that's running Drupal so that the Migrate framework can find them.

This tutorial assumes you're working with the sample images provided in the module, which will be located at /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images. When you're migrating for real, the files will have to be uploaded or otherwise made accessible to the server before this point.

Open up the CSV file at data/migration.csv and you'll see a file column containing paths to the sample images. You can use your favorite shell-based utility to open it at /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/migration.csv, or browse to it on GitHub, or just look at it pasted below as this tutorial does not require you to edit the files.

file
/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/Nails Nails Nails.jpg
/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/Free Smells.jpg
/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/Nothing to See Here.jpg
/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/Call For Champagne.jpg
/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/This Must Be The Place.jpg

Open up the "files" migration at config/install/migrate_plus.migration.file.yml. You'll see the following migration config:

id: file
label: Import Image Files
migration_group: migrate_islandora_csv

source:
  plugin: csv
  path: '/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/migration.csv'
  delimiter: ','

  # 1 means you have a header row, 0 means you don't
  header_row_count: 1 

  # Each migration needs a unique key per row in the CSV.  Here we're using the file path.
  keys: 
    - file 

  # You can't enter string literals into a process plugin, but you can give it a constant as a 'source'.
  constants:
    # Islandora uses Flysystem and stream wrappers to work with files.  What we're really saying here is
    # to put these files in Fedora in a 'csv_migration' folder.  It doesn't matter if the directory
    # doesn't exist yet, it will get created for you automatically.
    destination_dir: 'fedora://csv_migration' 

process:

  ##
  # The following two fields are temporary, and just used to generate a destination for the file.
  ##

  # Hack the file name out of the full path provided in the 'file' column.
  filename:
    -
      plugin: callback
      callable: pathinfo
      source: file
    -
      plugin: extract
      index:
        - basename

  # Construct the destination URI using the file name.
  destination:
    plugin: concat
    delimiter: /
    source:
      - constants/destination_dir
      - '@filename'

  ##
  # Here's where we copy the file over and set the URI of the file entity.
  ##
  uri:
    plugin: file_copy
    source:
      - file # The source column in the CSV
      - '@destination' # The destination entry from above  

destination:
  # These are Drupal 'image' entities we're making, not just plain 'file' entities.
  plugin: 'entity:file'
  type: image

Anatomy of a Migration

It seems like a lot to take in at first, but there's a pattern to Drupal migrations. They always contain core identification information and three key sections: source, process, and destination. And these sections correspond exactly to Extract, Transform, and Load.

Identification

The first section of a migration contains metadata for Drupal about the migration itself. The id parameter is the machine name of this migration, and must not conflict with existing migrations. Note: use alphanumeric characters and underscores. Hyphens (-) will cause the migration to fail. The label is a human-readable string to identify this migration, and the migration_group is where this migration will be grouped in the GUI.

Source

The source section configures a Drupal source plugin that will extract the data. A source plugin provides "rows" of data to processing plugins so that they can be worked on. In this case, we're using the csv source plugin, which very literally uses rows, however you can have source plugins that work with other data formats like XML and JSON. Look at the config from this section.

source:
  plugin: csv
  path: '/var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/migration.csv'
  delimiter: ','
  header_row_count: 1
  keys: 
    - file 
  constants:
    destination_dir: 'fedora://csv_migration' 

You can see we provide a path to its location, what delimiter to use, if it uses a header row, and which column contains a unique key for each entry. Constants can also be defined here (more on those later).

Process

We're going to dive into the details of this step below, but in summary: the process section is where we extract the desired bits from that row, transform them as desired, and populate them into an associative array. This section is a series of named steps, that call one or more process plugins. These plugins are executed in sequence, with the results getting passed from one to the next, forming a pipeline. By the end of the step, you have transformed some element of data (perhaps through text manipulation, concatenation, etc...) into the form that Drupal is expecting. The resulting value gets associated with the name of the step.

If the name of a step is the same as a field or property name on the target entity, the migrated entity will have that value for that field or property. This is how you can apply metadata from the CSV to an entity. If the step name is not the name of a field or property on the target entity, the migrate framework assumes it's a temporary value you're using as part of more complex logic. It won't wind up on the entity when the migration is done, but it will be available for you to use within other process plugins. You can always spot when a temporary value is being used by the fact that it's prefixed with an @ and surrounded by quotes. You can also pass constants into process plugins, which are prefixed with constants/.

Destination

The destination section contains the configuration that describes what gets loaded into Drupal.

destination:
  plugin: 'entity:file'
  type: image

You can create any type of content entity in Drupal. In this case, we're making file entities. Specifically, we're making images, which are a special type of file entity that's provided by core Drupal.

The Process Section in Depth

In the process section of the migration, we're copying the images over into a Drupal file system and setting the uri property on the corresponding File entity.

  uri:
    plugin: file_copy
    source:
      - file
      - '@destination'  

To do this, we're using the file_copy process plugin. But first, we have to know where a file is located and where it should be copied to. We know where the file resides, we have that in the CSV's file column. But we're going to have to do some string manipulation in order to generate the new location where we want the file copied. We're trying to convert something like /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/images/Free Smells.jpg to fedora://csv_migration/Free Smells.jpg.

The URI we're constructing is a stream wrapper of the form scheme://path/to/file. Islandora uses Flysystem, which allows for integration with many different types of filesystems, both remote and local. With Flysystem, the scheme part of the URI is the name of a filesystem. By default, Fedora is exposed using the scheme fedora://. So by setting uri to fedora://csv_migration/Free Smells.jpg, we're saying "put Free Smells.jpg in the csv_migration directory in Fedora."

Now, to perform this string manipulation in PHP, we'd do something like

$info = pathinfo($filepath);
$filename = $info['basename'];
$destination = "fedora://csv_migration/" . $filename;

We will mimic this exactly in the process section of our migration config. Just like we declare variables and call functions with PHP code, we can make entries in the process section to store the output of Drupal process plugins. We'll build up a destination "variable" using a filename "variable" and pass it into the file_copy process plugin.

To start, we'll get the filename using two process plugins, which do the same steps as the first two lines of the PHP above:

  filename:
    -
      plugin: callback
      callable: pathinfo
      source: file
    -
      plugin: extract
      index:
        - basename

The first process plugin, callback, lets you execute any PHP function that takes a single input and returns an output. It's not as flexible as making your own custom process plugin, but it's still pretty useful in a lot of situations. Here we're using it to call pathinfo(), telling it to use the file column in the CSV as input. We pass the resulting array from pathinfo() to the extract process plugin, which pulls data out of arrays using the keys you provide it under index.

Now that we have the file name, we have to prepend it with fedora://csv_migration/ to make the destination URI. In our PHP code above, we used . to concatenate the strings. In the migration framework, we use the concat process plugin. You provide it with two or more strings to concatenate, as well as a delimiter.

  destination:
    plugin: concat
    delimiter: /
    source:
      - constants/destination_dir
      - '@filename'

In our PHP code, we concatenated the $filename variable with a string literal. In our process plugin, we can provide the variable, e.g. the output of the filename process step, by prefixing it with an @. We can't, however, pass in fedora://csv_migration directly as a string. At first glance, you might think something like this would work, but it totally doesn't:

  # Can't do this.  Won't work at all.
  destination:
    plugin: concat
    delimiter: /
    source:
      - 'fedora://csv_migration'
      - '@filename'

That's because the migrate framework only interprets source values as names of columns from the CSV or names of other process steps. Even if they're wrapped in quotes. It will never try to use the string directly as a value. To circumvent this, we declare a constant in the source section of the migration config.

  constants:
    destination_dir: 'fedora://csv_migration'

This constant can be referenced as constants/destination_dir and passed into the concat process plugin as a source.

There are a lot more process plugins available through the (core) Migrate and Migrate Plus modules, and they are documented on Drupal.org.

Running the File Migration

Migrations can be executed via drush using the migrate:import command. You specify which migration to run by using the id defined in its YAML. You also need to set parameters to tell Drush who you are and what your site's URL is. Failing to do so will result in derivatives not being generated and malformed/improper RDF. So don't forget them! To run the file migration from the command line, make sure you're within /var/www/html/drupal/web (or any subdirectory) and enter

drush -y --userid=1 --uri=localhost:8000 migrate:import file

If you've already run the migration before, but want to re-run it for any reason, use the --update flag.

drush -y --userid=1 --uri=localhost:8000 migrate:import file --update

You may have noticed that migrations can be grouped, and that they define a migration_group in their configuration. You can execute an entire group of migrations using the --group flag. For example, to run the entire group defined in this module

drush -y --userid=1 --uri=localhost:8000 migrate:import --group migrate_islandora_csv

You can also use the migrate:rollback command to delete all migrated entities. Like migrate:import, it also respects the --group flag and --uri parameter. So to rollback everything we just did:

drush -y --uri=localhost:8000 migrate:rollback --group migrate_islandora_csv

If something goes bad during development, sometimes migrations can get stuck in a bad state. Use the migrate:reset command to put a migration back to Idle. For example, with the file migration, use

drush -y --uri=localhost:8000 migrate:reset file

Make sure you've run (and not rolled back) the file migration. It should tell you that it successfully created 5 files. You can confirm its success by visiting http://localhost:8000/admin/content/files. You should see 5 images of neon signs in the list.

Ingesting Nodes

Those five images are nice, but we need something to hold their descriptive metadata and show them off. We use nodes in Drupal to do this, and that means we have another migration file to work with. Nestled in with our nodes' descriptive metadata, though, are more Drupal entities, and we're going to generate them on the fly while we're making nodes. While we're doing it, we'll see how to use pipe delimited strings for multiple values as well as how to handle typed_relation fields that are provided by controlled_access_terms. Open up /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/config/install/migrate_plus.migration.node.yml and check it out.

# Uninstall this config when the feature is uninstalled
dependencies:
  enforced:
    module:
      - migrate_islandora_csv

id: node 
label: Import Nodes from CSV 
migration_group: migrate_islandora_csv

source:
  plugin: csv
  path: modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/migration.csv

  # 1 means you have a header row, 0 means you don't
  header_row_count: 1

  # Each migration needs a unique key per row in the csv.  Here we're using the file path.
  keys:
    - file 

  # You can't enter string literals into a process plugin, but you can give it a constant as a 'source'.
  constants:
    # We're tagging our nodes as Images
    model: Image 

    # Everything gets created as admin
    uid: 1

# Set fields using values from the CSV
process:
  title: title
  uid: constants/uid

  # We use the skip_on_empty plugin because
  # not every row in the CSV has subtitle filled
  # in.
  field_alternative_title:
    plugin: skip_on_empty
    source: subtitle 
    method: process

  field_description: description

  # Dates are EDTF strings
  field_edtf_date: issued

  # Make the object an 'Image'
  field_model:
    plugin: entity_lookup
    source: constants/model
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    value_key: name 
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: islandora_models 

  # Split up our pipe-delimited string of
  # subjects, and generate terms for each.
  field_subject:
    -
      plugin: skip_on_empty
      source: subject 
      method: process
    -
      plugin: explode
      delimiter: '|'
    -
      plugin: entity_generate
      entity_type: taxonomy_term
      value_key: name
      bundle_key: vid
      bundle: subject

  # If you have multiple values of a complex
  # field, iterate over them using sub_process.
  # But sub_process requires structured data
  # i.e. an associative array, not a string
  # or list of strings. To turn strings into
  # associative arrays, use the custom
  # process plugin str_to_assoc.

  # Extract a list of names from the column
  # called photographer, and transform it into
  # an array of associative arrays.
  photographers:
    -
      source: photographer
      plugin: skip_on_empty
      method: process
    -
      plugin: explode
      delimiter: '|'
    -
      plugin: str_to_assoc
      key: 'name'

  # Iterate over the array of associative arrays.
  # We create the taxonomy terms here so that we
  # can specify the bundle - other columns which
  # might feed into Linked Agent may contain
  # corporate bodies or families. The resulting
  # array contains the resulting term id (tid)
  # under the key 'target_id'.
  # We also add a key-value pair
  # 'rel_type' => 'relators:pht'. Other columns
  # might use different relators.
  linked_agent_pht:
    plugin: sub_process
    source: '@photographers'
    process:
      target_id:
        plugin: entity_generate
        source: name
        entity_type: taxonomy_term
        value_key: name
        bundle_key: vid
        bundle: person
      rel_type:
        plugin: default_value
        default_value: 'relators:pht'

  # Extract an array of names from the column
  # called provider
  providers:
    -
      source: provider
      plugin: skip_on_empty
      method: process
    -
      plugin: explode
      delimiter: '|'
    -
      plugin: str_to_assoc
      key: 'name'
  # Generate/lookup taxonomy terms in the
  # corporate body vocab, and add the relator.
  linked_agent_prv:
    plugin: sub_process
    source: '@providers'
    process:
      target_id:
        plugin: entity_generate
        source: name
        entity_type: taxonomy_term
        value_key: name
        bundle_key: vid
        bundle: 'corporate_body'
      rel_type:
        plugin: default_value
        default_value: 'relators:prv'

  # Write to the linked agent field. In this case
  # we first want to merge the info from the
  # photographer and provider columns. Since we 
  # already prepared our structured array using
  # the components of the typed_relation field as 
  # keys ('target_id' and 'rel_type'), we can just
  # pass this array into field_linked_agent.
  field_linked_agent:
    plugin: merge
    source:
      - '@linked_agent_pht'
      - '@linked_agent_prv'

# We're making nodes
destination:
  plugin: 'entity:node'
  default_bundle: islandora_object

The Breakdown

The source section looks mostly the same other than some different constants we're defining - the string "Image" (no quotes needed) and the drupal ID of the user who will be assigned as the author. If values contained special characters such as colons, quotes would be needed.

If you look at the process section, you can see we're taking the title, description, and issued columns from the CSV and applying them directly to the migrated nodes without any manipulation.

  title: title
  field_description: description
  field_edtf_date: issued

For subtitle, we're passing it through the skip_on_empty process plugin because not every row in our CSV has a subtitle entry. It's very useful when you have spotty data, and you'll end up using it a lot. The method: process bit tells the migrate framework only skip that particular field if the value is empty, and not to skip the whole row. It's important, so don't forget it. The full YAML for setting field_alternative_title from subtitle looks like this:

  field_alternative_title:
    plugin: skip_on_empty
    source: subtitle 
    method: process

Now here's where things get interesting. We can look up other entities to populate entity reference fields. For example, all Repository Items have an entity reference field that holds a taxonomy term from the islandora_models vocabulary. All of our examples are images, so we'll look up the Image model in the vocabulary since it already exists (it gets made for you when you use islandora-playbook). We use the entity_lookup process plugin to do this.

  field_model:
    plugin: entity_lookup
    source: constants/model
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    # 'name' is the string value of the term, e.g. 'Original file', 'Thumbnail'.
    value_key: name 
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: islandora_models

The entity_lookup process plugin looks up an entity based on the configuration you give it. You use the entity_type, bundle_key, and bundle configurations to limit which entities you search through. entity_type is, as you'd suspect, the type of entity: node, media, file, taxonomy_term, etc... bundle_key tells the migrate framework which property holds the bundle of the entity, and bundle is the actual bundle id you want to restrict by. In this case we specify the vid (vocabulary id) has to be islandora_models - which is the machine name of the vocabulary we're interested in. In this plugin, source is the value to search for - in this case we're looking for the string "Image", which we've defined as a constant. And we're comparing it to the name field on each term by setting the value_key config.

This approach applies the same taxonomy term to all objects. If you want to assign a taxonomy term at the node level (that is, potentially a different term for each node) rather than to all the nodes being imported, you can use a configuration as illustrated next. In this example, we have a column in our CSV input file with the header 'model', which we define as the source of the field_model values:

  field_model:
    plugin: entity_lookup
    # 'model' is the header of a field in our input CSV that contains the string value of the taxonomy term.
    source: model
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    value_key: name 
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: islandora_models

If you're not sure that the entities you're looking up already exist, you can use the entity_generate plugin, which takes the same config, but will create a new entity if the lookup fails. We use this plugin to create subject taxonomy terms that we tag our nodes with. A node can have multiple subjects, so we've encoded them in the CSV as pipe delimited strings.

subject
Neon signs|Night
Neon signs|Night|Funny
Neon signs|Night
Drinking|Neon signs
Neon signs

We can hack those apart easily enough. In PHP we'd do something like

$subjects = explode($string, '|');
$terms = [];
foreach ($subjects as $name) {
    $terms[] = \Drupal::service('entity_type.manager')->getStorage('taxonomy_term')->create([
        ...
        'vid' => 'subject',
        'name' => $name,
        ...
    ]);
}
$node->set('field_subject', $terms);

With process plugins, that logic looks like

field_subject:
    -
      plugin: skip_on_empty
      source: subject 
      method: process
    -
      plugin: explode
      delimiter: '|'
    -
      plugin: entity_generate
      entity_type: taxonomy_term
      value_key: name
      bundle_key: vid
      bundle: subject

Here we've got a small pipeline that uses the skip_on_empty process plugin, which we've already seen, followed by explode. The explode process plugin operates exactly like its PHP counterpart, taking an array and a delimiter as input. The combination of skip_on_empty and explode behave like a foreach loop on the explode results. If we have an empty string, nothing happens. If there's one or more pipe delimited subject names in the string, then entity_generate gets called for each name that's found. The entity_generate process plugin will try to look up a subject by name, and if that fails, it creates one using the name and saves a reference to it in the node. So entity_generate is actually smarter than our pseudo-code above, because it can be run over and over again and it won't duplicate entities. :champagne:

Complex Fields

Some fields don't hold just a single type of value. In other words, not everything is just text, numbers, or references. Using Drupal 8's Typed Data API, fields can hold groups of named values with different types. Consider a field that holds an RGB color. You could set it with PHP like so:

$node->set('field_color', ['R' => 255, 'G' => 255, 'B' => 255]);

You could even have a multi-valued color field, and do something like this

$node->set('field_color', [
  ['R' => 0, 'G' => 0, 'B' => 0],
  ['R' => 255, 'G' => 255, 'B' => 255],
]);

In the migrate framework, you have two options for handling these types of fields. You can build up the full array they're expecting, which is difficult and requires a custom process plugin. Or, if you only have one value going into a complex field, you can set each named component in the field with separate process pipelines.

In controlled_access_terms, we define a new field type of typed_relation, which is an entity reference coupled with a MARC relator. It expects an associative array that looks like this:

[ 'target_id' => 1, 'rel_type' => 'relators:ctb']

The target_id portion takes an entity id, and rel_type takes the predicate for the MARC relator we want to use to describe the relationship the entity has with the repository item. This example would reference taxonomy_term 1 and give it the relator for "Contributor".

If we have a single name to deal with, we can set those values in YAML, accessing field_linked_agent/target_id and field_linked_agent/rel_type independently.

  field_linked_agent/target_id:
    plugin: entity_generate
    source: photographer 
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    value_key: name
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: person 

  field_linked_agent/rel_type: constants/relator

Here we're looking at the photographer column in the CSV, which contains the names of the photographers that captured these images. Since we know these are photographers, and not publishers or editors, we can bake in the relator constant we set to relators:pht in the source section of the migration. So all that's left to do is to set the taxonomy term's id via entity_generate. If the lookup succeeds, the id is returned. If it fails, a term is created and its id is returned. In the end, by using the / syntax to set properties on complex fields, everything gets wrapped up into that nice associative array structure for you automatically.

However, if you have multiple names, and/or multiple columns that contain values that will go into the same typed_relation field, you do need to build up a full array of structured data.

We start by extracting the values in the photographer column, and busting them into a list. (In this case, given the sample data, the lists will all have length 1). Then, we use a custom process plugin to make each value the value in an associative array (see example data below).

  photographers:
    -
      source: photographer
      plugin: skip_on_empty
      method: process
    -
      plugin: explode
      delimiter: '|'
    -
      plugin: str_to_assoc
      key: 'name'

So, if we started with a column containing

'Alice|Bob|Charlie'

at the end of this pipeline, the photographers temporary variable would contain

[ 
  ['name' => 'Alice'],
  ['name' => 'Bob'],
  ['name' => 'Charlie]
]

Next, we use the sub_process plugin. It takes an array of associative arrays (as seen above) and iterates over them. From within subprocess' process parameter, you can access only what's defined in that associative array. Here, when we do our entity_generate lookup, our source is name, the (only) key in that array.

  linked_agent_pht:
    plugin: sub_process
    source: '@photographers'
    process:
      target_id:
        plugin: entity_generate
        source: name
        entity_type: taxonomy_term
        value_key: name
        bundle_key: vid
        bundle: person
      rel_type:
        plugin: default_value
        default_value: 'relators:pht'

Within sub_process, we cannot access the temporary variables or constants that we've created in the outer migration. This is why we use the default_value plugin when for the rel_type. It would have been simpler to define a constant as we did with 'Image', but we wouldn't be able to access it. The output of this pipeline is now formatted as the structured data expected by a typed_relation field:

[ 
  ['target_id' => 42, 'rel_type' => 'relators:pht' ],
  ['target_id' => 43, 'rel_type' => 'relators:pht' ],
  ['target_id' => 44, 'rel_type' => 'relators:pht' ],
]

The final step will be to assign this array to the Linked Agent field. But first, we repeat the process for another column, which contains names that have a different relator, and a different bundle. Finally, we merge the two temporary variables and pass the result to field_linked_agent. We don't have to assign the sub-components of field_linked_agent here, because this is already the structured data it is looking for.

  field_linked_agent:
    plugin: merge
    source:
      - '@linked_agent_pht'
      - '@linked_agent_prv'

Clear as mud? Great. Now let's run that migration.

Running the node migration

Like with the file migration, run drush -y --userid=1 --uri=http://localhost:8000 migrate:import node from anywhere within the Drupal installation directory will fire off the migration. Go to http://localhost:8000/admin/content and you should see five new nodes. Click on one, though, and you'll see it's just a stub with metadata. The CSV metadata is there, links to other entities like subjects and photographers are there, but there's no trace of the corresponding files. Here's where media entities come into play.

Migrating Media

Media entities are Drupal's solution for fieldable files. Since you can't put fields on a file, what you can do is wrap the file with a Media entity. In addition to a reference to the file (binary), technical metadata and structural metadata for the file go on the Media entity (e.g. MIME type, file size, resolution). Media also have a few special fields that are required for Islandora, field_media_of and field_use, which denote what node owns the media and what role the media serves, respectively. Since the Media entity references both the file it wraps and the node that owns it, Media entities act as a bridge between files and nodes, tying them together. And to do this, we make use of one last process plugin, migration_lookup. Open up /var/www/html/drupal/web/modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/config/install/migrate_plus.migration.media.yml and give it a look.

# Uninstall this config when the feature is uninstalled
dependencies:
  enforced:
    module:
      - migrate_islandora_csv 

id: media 
label: Import Media from CSV 
migration_group: migrate_islandora_csv

source:
  plugin: csv
  path: modules/contrib/migrate_islandora_csv/data/migration.csv

  # 1 means you have a header row, 0 means you don't
  header_row_count: 1

  # Each migration needs a unique key per row in the csv.  Here we're using the file path.
  keys:
    - file 

  # You can't enter string literals into a process plugin, but you can give it a constant as a 'source'.
  constants:
    # We're tagging our media as Original Files 
    use: Original File 

    # Everything gets created as admin
    uid: 1

process:

  name: title
  uid: constants/uid

  # Make the media an 'Original File'
  field_media_use:
    plugin: entity_lookup
    source: constants/use
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    value_key: name 
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: islandora_media_use 

  # Lookup the migrated file in the file migration.
  field_media_image:
    plugin: migration_lookup
    source: file 
    migration: file 
    no_stub: true

  # Lookup the migrated node in the node migration
  field_media_of:
    plugin: migration_lookup
    source: file 
    migration: node 
    no_stub: true

destination:
  # These are 'image' media we're making.
  plugin: 'entity:media'
  default_bundle: image 

migration_dependencies:
  required:
    - migrate_plus.migration.file
    - migrate_plus.migration.node
  optional: {  }

The Breakdown

Compared to the other migrations, this one is very straightforward. There's no string or array manipulation in YAML, and at most there's only one process plugin per field. Title and user are set directly, with no processing required

  name: title
  uid: constants/uid

The field_media_use field is a tag that's used to denote the purpose of a file with regard to the node it belongs to. E.g. is this the original file? a lower quality derivative? thumbnail? etc... In many ways it bears a resemblance to DSID in Islandora 7.x. Like field_model with nodes, the vocabulary already exists in your Islandora install, so all you have to do is look it up with the entity_lookup plugin.

  # Make the media an 'Original File'
  field_media_use:
    plugin: entity_lookup
    source: constants/use
    entity_type: taxonomy_term
    value_key: name 
    bundle_key: vid
    bundle: islandora_media_use 

The field_media_image and field_media_of fields are how the media binds a file to a node. You could use entity_lookup or entity_generate, but we've already migrated them and can very easily look them up by the id assigned to them during migration. But what's the benefit of doing so? The entity_lookup and entity_generate process plugins do the job fine, right?

The main advantage of using migration_lookup and defining migrations whenever possible, is that migrated entities can be rolled back. If you were to hop into your console and execute

drush -y --uri=http://localhost:8000 migrate:rollback --group migrate_islandora_csv

Your nodes, media, and files would all be gone. But your subjects and photographers would remain. If you want to truly and cleanly roll back every entity in a migration, you need to define those migrations and use migration_lookup to set entity reference fields.

Running the media migration

Run drush -y --uri=http://localhost:8000 migrate:import media from anywhere within the Drupal installation directory. You should now be able to see the media files attached to the nodes you created earlier. At this point, you might want to create derivatives, such as thumbnails, using the appropriate Drupal actions on the main content admin window.

What have we learned?

If you've made it all the way to the end here, then you've learned that you can migrate files and CSV metadata into Islandora using only YAML files. You've seen how to transform data with pipelines of processing plugins and can handle numeric, text, and entity reference fields. You can handle multiple values for fields, and even more complicated things like typed_relation fields. And as big as this walkthrough was, we're only scratching the surface of what can be done with the Migrate API.

Where to go from here?

There's certainly more you can do with Drupal 8's Migrate API. There's a plethora of source and processing plugins out there that can handle pretty much anything you throw at it. XML and JSON are fair game. You can also request sources using HTTP, so you can always point it at an existing systems REST API and go from there. If you can't make the Migrate API's existing workflow make the necessary changes to your data, you can expand its capabilities by writing your own process plugins. Reading the Drupal.org documentation on the Migrate API would be a good place to start.

But really the best thing to do is try and get your data into Islandora! We intend to create a boilerplate branch of this repository that will allow you to clone down a migration template, ready for you to customize to fit your data. And as you assemble it into CSV format, keep in mind that if you have more than just names for things like subjects and authors, that you can always make more CSVs. Think of it like maintaining tables in an SQL database. Each CSV has unique keys, so you can lookup/join entities between CSVs using those keys. And you can still pipe-delimit the keys like we did in our example to handle multi-valued fields.

In some repositories, these CSVs can be used to make bulk updates to metadata. Just make your changes to maintain the CSVs, then run the migration(s) again with the --update flag. This will not always be efficient, as you'll update every entity, even if it didn't change. But, by breaking down your CSVs per collection or object type, you could keep them small enough to use this process for a small repository.

There is also a tool for migrating directly from an Islandora 7.x to Islandora 8 (migrate_7x_claw), using Solr, XPaths, and Fedora calls to pull files and objects directly into Islandora 8. It may be worth checking out, and/or using in conjunction with a CSV migration.